Smart-Take: Alzheimer's Disease

Dementia is a catch-all term for diseases of the brain that impact memory and cognition. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common of those, comprising up to 80 percent of dementia diagnoses, and it is fatal. The onset of the disease can occur as early as the 30s or 40s—but even the early onset form of the disease (representing about 5 percent of overall Alzheimer’s patients) typically does not strike until patients are in their 50s. Most often, Alzheimer’s hits adults after age 65.


Alzheimer’s is a progressive disease and is usually talked about and treated in three general stages.

Early-Stage Alzheimer’s. While people in the early stages of the disease may still function and interact as usual, memory and concentration problems are typically starting to occur, including:

  • Trouble remembering names and recently read materials, or finding the right word
  • Losing or misplacing things
  • Increasing trouble with organizing, planning, or performing tasks

Middle-Stage Alzheimer’s. In the early part of this stage, patients can often recall memories and activities in great detail from their pasts but have incrementally more trouble with day-to-day tasks, like paying bills. Later in the progression of this stage, additional detail will be lost from their personal history, and friends and family may notice the toll that the frustration is taking on their loved one. Middle-stage symptoms include:

  • Confusing words, or what day, season, or time it is
  • Feeling moody, irritated, or withdrawn, often stemming from a lessened ability to communicate
  • Needing help to choose the right clothing
  • Behavioral changes like delusions or compulsivity (shredding tissues, folding and refolding napkins)
  • Changing sleep patterns and an increased risk of wandering (and becoming lost)
  • Trouble controlling bladder and bowel function

Late-Stage Alzheimer’s. In the final stages of this progression, patients will lose the ability to interact and, ultimately, to control their own movement. Patients will require full-time help, due to symptoms such as:

  • An inability to care for themselves (daily activities, eating, drinking, and washing)
  • Loss of motor control (walking, sitting up, and eventually, swallowing)
  • Increased susceptibility to infection—especially pneumonia


Caregivers carry an especially difficult burden providing for the physical and emotional needs of Alzheimer’s patients. Your role is wide-ranging: from helping newly diagnosed, early-stage patients plan for the future, to telling others about the diagnosis; and from making later-stage decisions about what kind of help a patient needs and when, to working to preserve your loved one’s dignity.

This can be challenging on many fronts but can be especially painful when behavioral changes make your loved one unrecognizable. The Alzheimer’s Association provides these five tips for handling these situations:

  • Don’t take behaviors personally
  • Remain patient and calm
  • Explore pain as a trigger
  • Don’t argue or try to convince
  • Accept behaviors as a reality of the disease and try to work through it

For more detail on providing care at each stage, visit